Bug Bounty programs



scramble code with a key

  • Today's encryption uses 256 bit keys

Symmetric key

When sender and receiver use the same key

  • eg. Ceasar's cypher
  • The key has to be agreed before time

Asymmetric key

used in open communications like the Internet

  • Consists of a public key that can be exchanged with anybody and a private key that isn't shared
  • The public key is used to encrypt data and anybody can create a secret message
  • The secret can only be decrypted by a computer with a private key

IEEE OC CyberSecurity SIG Chair Arthur Schwarz


SSH Pivoting

  • is to move between subnets piping traffic from one subnet to another

  • ssh -Local

  • ssh -Remote
  • ssh -Dynamic

SSH lateral attack

  • moving within the same subnet



  • ifconfig to get ip address
  • locate ifconfig to get the directory where the ifconfig or any other command is located.
  • netdiscover -r <inet> discover how many machines connected to the local network
  • nmap <ip address> shows ports exposed in a machine
  • netstat

ACM Cyber Security

Brian Wallace - Cylance

The Diversity of the Cyber Threat Landscape @botnet_hunter

  • APT (Advanced Persistent Threats)

social engineering

  • eg. hacking an email to get the VPN password

Spray and Pray Spam

  • Offered as SaaS too
  • emails, twitters

Credential Phishing

  • eg. PayPal

Spear Phishing

  • specific targets
  • you can harvest info from user from public social media
    • Operation Cleaver -> can use trojan horse app, posing as a recruiter

USB Drops

Remote Exploitation

  • software vulnerabilities
  • unconfigured devices can be a gold mine for attacker
  • IPv6 will make the web more vulnerable

Default Credentials

  • eg. root/root
  • this is how the Mirai DNS attack was done through IoT

Over Exposed Services

  • eg. hotel wifi
  • ANTLabs InnGate (hotel Wifi)
  • RSYNC daemon


  • Adobe Reader is very vulnerable. Watch out with PDFs you don't know
  • patching helps

Man in the Middle (MITM)

  • in a coffee shop wifi, trick you or your computer to proxy through them..
  • tool Evilgrade

Public WiFi

  • MITM
  • Airplane, coffee shop, restaurant wifis
  • anything not encrypted is at risk
  • use VPN can help when using public WiFi
  • or not use the public WiFi


  • StringRay tool from law enforcement to listen to calls
  • hack the femtocell and can get MITM access to a phone even without WiFi

Lateral Movement

Credential Theft

  • Passwords

Cached Credentials

  • Isass.exe in Windows stores username/passwords
  • Mimikatz to pull data from Isass.exe

Credentials from the Network

  • LLMNR, NBT-NS and MDNS can be abused on Windows to leak encrypted creds
  • Responder tool

Credentials in Shared Documents

  • creds in a script, file, github, slack
  • attackers may be paid by the hour to dig into your stuff until they find something

Abusing Shared Resources

  • they can modify wikis, word documents, exes, etc.

Destroy Data

Encrypt Data

  • Ransomeware .. encrypt files in a system and ask a ransome for that
  • Bitcoin or other difficult to de-anonymize payment method

Steal Data

  • it's possible to encode data in simple words eg. Taylor Swift lyrics using machine learning


DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service)

When attackers flood a web server with requests

Encryption cracker

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